By William N. Venables, David M. Smith
This guide offers an creation to "R", a software program package deal for statistical computing and photographs. R is unfastened software program, dispensed less than the GNU normal Public License. it may be used with GNU/Linux, Unix and Microsoft home windows.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to R
1 Concatenating lists When the concatenation function c() is given list arguments, the result is an object of mode list also, whose components are those of the argument lists joined together in sequence. C) Recall that with vector objects as arguments the concatenation function similarly joined together all arguments into a single vector structure. In this case all other attributes, such as dim attributes, are discarded. frame". There are restrictions on lists that may be made into data frames, namely • The components must be vectors (numeric, character, or logical), factors, numeric matrices, lists, or other data frames.
Na(z)] } The reader is referred to the R Language Definition for a more complete discussion of this mechanism. Chapter 11: Statistical models in R 50 11 Statistical models in R This section presumes the reader has some familiarity with statistical methodology, in particular with regression analysis and the analysis of variance. Later we make some rather more ambitious presumptions, namely that something is known about generalized linear models and nonlinear regression. The requirements for fitting statistical models are sufficiently well defined to make it possible to construct general tools that apply in a broad spectrum of problems.
Frame". There are restrictions on lists that may be made into data frames, namely • The components must be vectors (numeric, character, or logical), factors, numeric matrices, lists, or other data frames. • Matrices, lists, and data frames provide as many variables to the new data frame as they have columns, elements, or variables, respectively. • Numeric vectors, logicals and factors are included as is, and character vectors are coerced to be factors, whose levels are the unique values appearing in the vector.