Download A Primer for Sampling Solids, Liquids, and Gases: Based on by Patricia L. Smith PDF

By Patricia L. Smith

This knowledge can assist statisticians use sampling options for bulk-material samples that aren't made of well-defined devices. It tells what to seem for in sampling units and approaches to procure present samples from bulk fabrics, provides sampling directions that may be utilized instantly, and indicates how one can research protocols to discover sampling difficulties. there's an creation to the tips of Pierre Gy in daily language, with intuitive causes, and examples of straightforward experiments readers can practice to appreciate ideas. For graduate scholars in classes on sampling, in addition to specialists in facts, environmental technology, and business and chemical engineering. Smith is a statistician, information analyst, and technique development professional

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Extra resources for A Primer for Sampling Solids, Liquids, and Gases: Based on the Seven Sampling Errors of Pierre Gy

Example text

Here, c$ is determined by the ratio (mass of characteristic of interest)/(mass of sample). The FE is the difference between the sample amount and the lot content, measured relative to the lot amount. If the sample is fairly representative, then this difference will be small. Thus, the FE will be small. Of course, even with probabilistic sampling, the sample almost never has the exact content amount of the property of interest as the lot. Sometimes we overestimate the true lot amount from the sampling and from the chemical or physical analysis, and other times we underestimate it.

7. SAMPLE HANDLING 33 We can apply the idea of cross-stream sampling even if the sampling units are discrete. Consider the situation discussed earlier, where we needed to select randomly several bags of product from a large lot. If the bags are not easily accessible because of the way they are stored, then statistical techniques can be used to obtain a random sample of bags as they are filled at the end of the process. The sequence of bags is sampled as a one-dimensional "stream" before they are stacked and stored, that is, before they become a three-dimensional lot.

Thus, how the units are distributed makes a difference in the particular sample we get and consequently in the measured amount of the chemical or physical property of interest. On a small scale, the DH gives rise to Gy's grouping and segregation error (GSE): the error that arises when we do not sample units one at a time, at random, and with equal probability. If we can reduce the DH, however, we can reduce the sampling-to-sampling variation. That is, we could reduce the theoretical variation we would see if we were able to go back in time, repeat the sampling protocol, and obtain a measurement on each protocol's sample.

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