By Thera Marie Crane, Larry M. Hyman, Simon Nsielanga Tukumu
This ebook provides the 1st documentation of Nzadi, a Bantu language spoken by way of fishermen alongside the Kasai River within the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). it's the manufactured from wide research through the authors and contributors in box equipment and workforce examine classes on the collage of California, Berkeley, and contains ten chapters protecting the segmental phonology, tone procedure, morphology, and sentence constitution, via appendices at the Nzadi humans and heritage and on Proto-Bantu to Nzadi sound adjustments. additionally integrated are 3 texts and a lexicon of over 1100 entries, together with a few fish species. sooner than this paintings, Nzadi had no longer even been pointed out within the literature, and at the present nonetheless has no access as a language or dialect within the Ethnologue. Of specific curiosity within the examine of Nzadi is its huge grammatical simplification, leading to constructions fairly assorted from these of canonical Bantu languages. even supposing Nzadi has misplaced lots of the inherited agglutinative morphology, there are nonetheless recognizable classification prefixes on nouns and a reflex of noun classification contract in genitive buildings. different components of specific curiosity are human/number contract, tense-aspect-mood marking, non-subject relative clause buildings, and WH query formation. This succinct, yet finished grammar presents wide insurance of the phonological, grammatical and semantic houses that might be of strength curiosity not just to Bantuists, Africanists and people attracted to this zone of the DRC, but in addition to typologists, normal linguists, and scholars of linguistics.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Nzadi B865 : A Bantu language of Democratic Republic of Congo
Since /o/ does not occur in closed syllables, which may have merged with /u/, it is tempting to interpret CeC as the realization of /CiC/. 15] /i/ vs. /e/ /e/ vs. 4. 4. 16] labial stops affricates fricatives nasals liquid glides p b (pf) bv f v m alveolar t ts s palatal d dz z velar k (g) labiovelar kp (gb) n l (r) y w As seen, Nzadi distinguishes five classes of stem-initial consonants: (unaspirated) stops, affricates, fricatives, nasals and the oral sonorants /l/, /w/ and /y/. Although five places of articulation are indicated, only the glide y (IPA [j]) is palatal, only stops can be velar, and 22 A Grammar of Nzadi only stops and the glide /w/ can be labiovelar.
Given the historical shortening of words, it is not surprising to find that there is no stem-level vowel harmony, as found elsewhere in Bantu. Of the 52 bisyllabic verb stems in the lexicon, the three vowels /i, u, a/ occur freely in the second syllable: four bisyllabic verbs have /i/, 24 have /u/ and 22 have /a/. The two exceptions are o-bçkçl ‘to bring up’ and o-bçndçl ‘to please’. e. -ul ! -çl after CçC-. However, one verb, o-kçsul ‘to cough’, does occur without height harmony. Since the numbers are so small, we cannot have confidence that the process is live in Nzadi.
Fruits’ ‘their fruits’ In general, and excluding LH stems, the same N2 HL tone is obtained independent of its input tone and of the tone of N1. However, two types of variations have been recorded. g. okpá ‘salt’ ! okal okpâ ~ okal ókpa ‘the place of the salt’. g. etaar ‘bridge’ ! okal etáàr ~ okal étaar ‘place of the bridge’. 3. Verb Tones ‘gorilla’ ‘mud’ ‘Sakata person’ ‘root’ okal sókamunt okal e pç@tpçt okal osákata okal é ntsumbûl ‘place of the gorilla’ ‘place of the mud’ ‘place of Sakata person’ ‘place of the root’ The tones on verb stems vary considerably by tense, aspect, and mood, which are treated separately in Chapter 7.